Alergias de temporada

By on diciembre 22, 2010

Alergias de temporada

Staff

Agencia Reforma

MÉXICO, DF – Tos, estornudos, ojos llorosos, congestión y picazón en la piel son algunos síntomas que aumentan en esta época invernal.

“Las alergias están presentes todo el año, pero durante otoño-invierno se exacerban por la polinización, la humedad en el ambiente, la reproducción de ácaros de polvo y los cambios de clima”, señala la alergóloga pediatra Tamara Staines.

“Rinitis, conjuntivitis, dermatitis atópica o asma son los padecimientos alérgicos más comunes”, advierte.

Ante cualquier molestia acuda con el especialista, incremente el consumo de cítricos, evite cambios bruscos de temperatura y extreme la higiene en casa.

¿Rinitis o sinusitis?

Aprenda a distinguir estas enfermedades que presentan síntomas similares pero no son iguales

La rinitis y la sinusitis son enfermedades que presentan síntomas similares por lo que suelen confundirse, sin embargo, son padecimientos distintos. De hecho, en algunos casos la primera determina la segunda.

La rinitis es la inflamación de la mucosa nasal, explica el alergólogo pediatra Carlos Báez Loyola, presidente del Consejo Nacional de Inmunología Clínica y Alergia.

En la Ciudad de México, dice, entre 46 y 56 por ciento de los niños sufre esta enfermedad; mientras que alrededor del 35 por ciento de adolescentes la padece.

Según el especialista, este padecimiento se divide en rinitis alérgica y no alérgica. La rinitis alérgica es la más frecuente y se presenta como una respuesta de la mucosa de la nariz ante factores del medio ambiente.

“Es una reacción inmunológica que está mediada por un tipo de anticuerpo especial llamado inmunoglobulina E, el cual es el que reacciona”, puntualiza el alergólogo.

Báez Loyola dice que la rinitis no alérgica más frecuente es la eosinofílica, que recibe su nombre por el eosinófilo, una célula sanguínea. Otro tipo de rinitis no alérgica es la vasomotora idiopática, causada por los cambios bruscos de temperatura y olores irritantes.

Estas dos últimas se manifiestan igual que la alérgica, es decir, presentan síntomas como estornudos recurrentes, comezón en la nariz, secreción nasal cristalina, nariz tapada, lagrimeo y ojos irritados.

Gerardo Hernández, médico adscrito al Departamento de Infectología del Hospital La Raza, precisa que la rinitis también puede ser causada por virus.

“Son los mismos virus que causan la gripe y provocan una rinosinusitis viral transitoria”, añade.

Sinusitis

En términos generales se llama rinitis a aquella condición que no es infecciosa y generalmente es de índole alérgico; la sinusitis es un proceso infeccioso, ya sea bacteriano o viral, precisa Hernández.

Según Báez Loyola, la sinusitis es una complicación de la rinitis, pero a ésta se agrega la infección.

“La mucosa de la nariz se infecta generalmente por bacterias, en consecuencia, la secreción en lugar de ser cristalina se vuelve amarillenta verdosa, es purulenta”, señala.

El alergólogo estima que un 20 por ciento de quienes sufren rinitis también desarrollan sinusitis por no tratarse adecuadamente.

Hernández menciona que la sinusitis puede ser aguda o crónica. En el primer caso se debe a la rinitis, mientras que en el segundo es debido a componentes anatómicos inadecuados que causan que el drenaje de moco en los senos paranormales no sea el correcto.

“Cuando hay desviaciones de tabique, por ejemplo, se da un sobrecrecimiento de la mucosa que no deja fluir adecuadamente el moco de los senos paranasales”, explica.

Los síntomas de la sinusitis son parecidos a los de la rinitis, es decir, hay escurrimiento nasal, estornudos frecuentes y producción de moco blanquecino.

Pero, además, pueden añadirse síntomas como dolor en los pómulos y en la frente e incluso fiebre.

Tratamiento

Los especialistas indican que la rinitis puede tratarse con antistamínicos y esteroides, además de que las personas no deben exponerse a los alérgenos que la producen.

 Hernández indica que las personas deben consultar a un inmunólogo para que los trate con vacunas.

En el caso de la sinusitis es necesario prescribir antibióticos contra la infección.

En tanto que quienes tienen sinusitis crónica deben corregir su problema anatómico. El experto adecuado para hacerlo es el otorrinolaringólogo.

Para Hernández es muy importante que se realice esta corrección porque pueden darse complicaciones graves como un absceso cerebral.

Los expertos coinciden en que quienes presentan síntomas deben acudir con el médico y jamás autoprescribirse, pues esto puede complicar estas enfermedades.

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